In the past, I have used Transcription Coloring to reinforce the concept of the central dogma. The worksheet shows how DNA is converted to RNA which travels to the ribosomes. The ribosomes then build a protein is created from individual amino acids. Three bases make a codon. One codon correlates to one amino acid. Amino acids forms chains called proteins.
There are three slides on this activity, the first two show images of the process and the last slide asks students to answer text questions that describe various parts of the process. For example: “What is the role of tRNA in the process?”
Students can also practice with this worksheet on the Genetics of Sickle Cell Disease which goes into greater detail about the relationship between the proteins and functions of those proteins.
A single switch in a base, can lead to the nonfunctional protein found in hemoglobin. There is also a labeling handout that is similar but is designed for students to do on paper, in class.