1. One of the strands of DNA is used as a template to create a strand of mRNA
2. Requires the enzyme RNA polymerase
3. Transcription always starts at a region called the promoter.
4. Introns are segments of DNA that do not contain genes. Exons are segments that contain genes.
5. Each 3 bases on mRNA is a codon, it corresponds to an amino acid (see codon chart)
1. Takes the message on mRNA and converts it into an amino acid chain
2. Individual amino acids will join to form a protein. Shapes and composition of protein determine its functionality (hair, enzymes, skin, muscles etc)
The steps in translation are: (Fig
1. The ribosome binds to mRNA at a specific area.
2. The ribosome starts matching tRNA anticodon sequences to the mRNA codon sequence.
3. Each time a new tRNA comes into the ribosome, the amino acid that it was carrying gets added to the elongating polypeptide chain.
4. The ribosome continues until it hits a stop sequence, then it releases the polypeptide and the mRNA.
5. The polypeptide forms into its native shape and starts acting as a functional protein in the cell.
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