The Urinary System

17.1 Introduction

-Cells produce waste that can become toxic if they accumulate



17.2 Kidneys

-superior end of the kidney forms a funnel shaped sac - _____________________________
-renal ________________________= center of the kidney
-renal ________________________ = outer shell around the medulla
-renal arteries and veins supply blood to the kidneys

Renal Arteries & Veins

Arteries attach to the abdominal ___________________________ Veins attach to the _________________________________

Pathway of blood flow:

Renal Artery → Interlobar arteries → __________________________ → Efferent Arterioles (wraps around tubules) → Renal Vein → _________________________

*****_________________________-  functional unit of the urinary system, IMPORTANT!

Quick Analogy:  A nephron is to the urinary system as the ______________________ is to the nervous system

-each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons
-renal corpuscle: composed of a tangled cluster called a ________________________________ which filters fluid

Pathway = glomerulus → proximal tubulue → nephron loop (also called loop of henle) → distal tubule → collecting duct → ureter → bladder


Also see Kidney and Nephron Coloring

What blood vessel enters the glomerulus? ____________________________

What vessel leaves it? _________________________________

17.3 Urine Formation

Urine Composition

95 % Water | Also contains urea and uric acid (characteristic smell)
Urine may also contain other chemicals that can be detected. Examples: _______________________________

Hormones present in a pregnant woman are detectable in urine

*Diuretic = ____________________________________

17.4 Urine Elimination

After urine forms in the nephrons, the ureters (starting with the renal pelvis) carry the urine away to the bladder

Bladder is an expandable structure that stores urine before it is eliminated from the body.

Transitional epithelial cells change shape to allow for ____________________ and ___________________________.

Micturation = urination; as the bladder fills this reflex occurs though it is also under voluntary control

_________________________ Muscles – muscles that attach to bladder and sphincter that control urination

Urethra = tube carries urine to the outside of the body

Disorders Related to the Urinary System

Kidney Stones

How is it treated?

Cystitis = bacteria enters the bladder or kidneys (kidney infection); more common in women because the urethra is shorter

Commonly known as ________________________________

Bladder Cancer =

How is it treated?

Overactive Bladder = sudden contractions of the bladder produce sensation of urgency, also more common in women

Incontinence =


Kidney Failure – kidneys no longer filter substances from the blood.

How is it treated?

Describe a kidney transplant