Chapter 1 - The Science of Biology

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What is Science?

Science is a body of knowledge that explains the natural world.

The Goal of Science

1) provide natural and testable explanations
2) to understand patterns in nature
3) to make useful predictions

Scientific Method:

Science begins with observations

Hypothesis - an explanation that can be tested

Testing the Hypothesis

- perform experiments
- make further observations
- gather evidence`
- make predictions

Scientific Method Overview

1) Make observations
2) Ask questions
3) Form a hypothesis
4) Test the hypothesis
5) Draw conclusions
6) Communicate results

Designing Experiments

Manipulated variable - the variable that is deliberately changed (independent variable)
Responding variable is variable that is observed ( aka dependent variable)

Data - the information gathered from observations

quantitative data = numbers
qualitative data = descriptive

Use bar graphs or line graphs to display data

Laws and Theories

A theory combines observations and experiment into a general explation for a scientific phenomenon. Theories explain WHY.

Example: Theory of Evolution

Laws are statemts that predict, or tell us WHAT we expect to happen.

Example: Law of Thermodynamics

Scientific Reasoning - CER

Claim - a proposed answer or explanation
Evidence - data or observations that support the claim
Reasoning - connecting the evidence and the claim, or applying scientific models or theories

Student Activities on the Scientific Method

Controls and Variable with the Simpsons

Independent and Dependent Variables

Sewer Lice Observation (demo)

Bromthymol Blue and Carbon Dioxide (demo)

Equipment Use Station Lab

Investigation: Heat Loss and Insulation