Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal | Smooth | Cardiac
Muscle and Muscle Fiber Structure:
A muscle is composed of many muscle fibers arranged in bundles called _______________________________
Individual muscles are separated by fascia, which also forms _______________________________
What is plantar fasciitis?
A muscle also contains 3 different layers of connective tissue:
__________________________ - outermost layer, surrounds entire muscle
__________________________ - separated and surrounds the FASCICLES (bundles)
__________________________ - surrounds each individual muscle fiber
The muscle fiber membrane is called
The cytoplasm is called _______________________________________
Within the sarcoplasm are many parallel fibers known as ___________________________________
Each myofibril is made of many MYOFILAMENTS. There are two types:
MYOSIN - thick filaments
ACTIN - thin filaments
Structure of a SARCOMERE (functional unit of a muscle)
A Bands = dArk = thick = MYOSIN
I Bands = lIght = thin = ACTIN
Sarcomere = the area between two Z-lines
Heirarchy: Muscles → Fascicles (bundles) → Myofibrils → Myofilaments (actin & myosin)
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION (also called the motor unit) - where a ____________________and muscle fiber come together.
MOTOR END PLATE - specialized part of the sarcolemma located at the neuromuscular junction, has many folds
SYNAPTIC CLEFT - An actual "gap"which exists between the motor neuron endings and the motor end plate.
SYNAPTIC VESICLES - where _________________________ are stored before being released into the synaptic cleft.
The neurotransmitted that crosses the gap is __________________________________. This brings about muscle contractions.
CHOLINESTERASE is an
enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
The theory of how muscle contracts is the sliding filament theory. The contraction of a muscle occurs as the thin filament slide past the thick filaments.
What is needed: ACh = acetylcholine | AChE = acetylcholinosterase | Calcium | ATP | Actin & Myosin
Provided by ATP from cellular respiration which occurs in the___________________________
* Creatine Phosphate provides energy for the regeneration of ATP
* Only 25% of energy produced during
cellular respiration is used in metabolic processes - the rest is in the form
of HEAT - maintains body temperature
ATP = adenosine triphosphate | ADP = adenosine diphosphate
1. Threshold Stimulus
2. All-or-None Response
3. Motor Unit
5. Muscle Tone
6. Muscular Hypertrophy
7. Muscular Atrophy
8. Muscle Fatigue
9. Muscle Cramp
10. Oxygen Debt / Lactic Acid
11. Origin / Insertion