Name: ____________________________________________

Organic Molecules - Reinforcement (Designed for AP Biology)

1. What are the four macromolecules important to life: _____________________________________

Carbohydrates

2. Examine each of the monosaccharides below identified as hexoses.

hexoses

 

a) What is the molecular formula of glucose? Fructose? ______________________________

b) What do all of the hexoses have in common? What makes them different? ______________

c) Why are these molecules called hexoses? ______________________________________

 

3. Two monosaccharides can combine to create ______________________________________

a) Identify the monosaccharide subunits in each molecule.

sucrose and lactose                    

b) Where is sucrose found? ______________________ Lactose?_________________________

c) What is the name of the reaction that creates a disaccharide? ____________________________

d) When there are more than two monomers, the new molecule is called a _____________________

4. What polysaccharide is found in plants and is used as energy storage? __________________________

What is the similar one found in animals? ________________________________________

5. What structural polysaccharide makes up the exoskeletons of insects? _______________________

 

3. Compare the structure of ribose to deoxyribose.

pentose sugars

a) In the image of deoxyribose, the carbons have been numbered, number the same carbons in the ribose molecule.

b) Why are these molecules called "pentoses?" ______________________________________

c) How is deoxyribose similar to other monosaccharides? ______________________________

d) How does ribose differ from deoxyribose? ______________________________________

4. Identify each part of the molecule below.

deoxyribonucleic acid

a) Where is this molecule found? _________________________________

b) What other bases can be substituted for adenine? __________________

c) Is the molecule from DNA or RNA? How do you know? ______________

d) Identfy the sugar in the group? What is it? ________________________