# Final Exam Review Guide Answer Key

Overview: 5 sections, 130 multiple choice questions
Comprehensive; covers all topics learned in Biology 1(1A)

## Section A: Scientific Processes and Introduction to Biology (Ch 1)

Topics: Microscope Use, Scientific Method, Metric System

1. List the steps of the scientific method:
develop hypothesis_
_experiment
_draw conclusion_

2. Understand how a controlled experiment is conducted.

Sample: A scientist wants to know if Miracle Grow will increase the number of tomatoes on his tomato plants. To tomato plant A he adds miracle grow; and to tomato plant B he does not add miracle grow. Both plants are given the same amount of light and water. After 6 weeks he counts the number of tomatoes are present on each plant. Plant A = 9 Plant B = 4

a. What is the manipulated variable in the experiment?____miracle grow______
b. What is the responding variable? ______number of tomatoes_______
c. Which is the control group? __group B____

3. Microscope Use:

a. When first focusing the microscope, which objective do you use? __scanning (4x)____
b. When using the high power objective, which focus knob do you use? _coarse____
c. What are the three objectives found on the microscopes you used in class? _fine adjustment__
d. What part of the microscope can be used to adjust the amount of light? diaphragm

4. Metric System

a. What metric system unit would be used to measure volume (such as a can of coke) ? _ml or liter
b. What metric system unit would be used to measure the length of a room? meter

5. Terms/Concepts

a. Biology the study of life
b. Science gathers information about the world using obvservations and experimentation
c. Hypothesis a proposed answer or explanation, a testable statement
d. Controlled Experiment used to test a hypothesis, tests only one variable
e. Cell the smallest unit of life
f. Organism any living thing
g. Louis Pasteur disproved spontaneous generation
h. Spontaneous Generation the idea that life could come from nonliving matter
i. Homeostasis state of biological balance; staying the same
j. Responsiveness a reaction to a stimulus
k. Reproduction making more of the same kind, either sexually or asexually
l. Evolution change over time
m. Energy obtained from sunlight or food, powers life processes
n. Observations perceiving objects or events
o. Theory a statement that explains a set of observations and is generally well accepted

## Section B: Cells and Cell Processes (Ch 7)

Topics: Cell Structure, Organelles, Types of Cells, Cell Transport, Cell Division

1. What structure distinguishes a eukaryote from a prokaryote? _____nucleus_________
2. What shape is a plant cell? __ square _____________ An animal cell? round
3. What part of the cell is describe as selectively permeable? ___ cell membrane _____
4. If you place a few drops of food coloring in a glass full of water, eventually all the water is colored. This is due to the process of ______ diffusion ____
5. For each of the structures listed, indicate whether it is found in PLANTS (P), ANIMALS (A), or BOTH (B)

_ P ___ Chloroplasts __B__ Cell Membrane _ B _Nucleus _ P_ Cell Wall __ B __ Mitochondria

6. In each of the situations pictured, indicate whether the cell will gain water, lose water, or stay the same. In each case, the cell in the beaker is 10% salt.

......stays same .............................. cell gains water................................cell loses water

7. Know the function of each of the cell organelles listed:

a. Endoplasmic Reticulum ___ intracellular highway, transport system __________
b. Cell Membrane __ regulates what comes in and out of the cell ___________
c. Ribosome ______ makes proteins ________________
d. Lysosome ___ contains digestive enzymes, breaks down substances ______________
e. Nucleus _____ control center of the cell, contains DNA __________

8. Identify the process pictured as either mitosis, osmosis, or endocytosis

Bio 1A: Also identify the phases of mitosis

.....endocytosis .............................................mitosis ..........................................................osmosis

9. Label a plant and an animal cell:

A. Cell Wall | B. Cell Membrane | C. Golgi Apparatus | D. Chloroplasts | E. Vacuole | AB. Mitochondria | AC. Cytoplasm AD. Ribosome | AE. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum | BD. Nucleolus | BC. Chromosomes | BE. Rough ER

## Section C: Evolution and Taxonomy

Topics: Classification, Theory of Evolution, The Six Kingdoms

1. Define evolution: ______ change over time __________
2. For each statement below, place a check next to those that provide EVIDENCE that evolution has occurred:

_X__ Animals have structures they do not use (vestigial)
___ The same types of animals live in different parts of the world
_X_ The fossil record shows transitional species
_X_ Vertebrates have the same (or similar) internal structures, such as the bones of the forearm
___ Every organism has unique structures unlike any other organism

3. [ Natural / Artificial ] Selection is responsible for the many different breeds of dogs.
4. What is an adaptation? ________ a trait that gives an organism an advantage, or helps it survive _______
5. Describe how evolution would have acted on giraffes according to natural selection.

Long necked animals had an advantage in that they could reach high leaves, those animals survived and passed their genes to the next generation. Short necked animals did not survive. Over time, a larger number of the population had long necks.

6. Who proposed the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? ______ Charles Darwin ______

7. What is the difference between a common name and a scientific name? _ common names vary, scientific names have two parts and do not vary by region ___
8. Know the taxonomic categories used to describe how organisms are classified.
Kingdom, _____ Phylum _________, Class, ___ Order ____, Family, _ Genus _ Species

9. What does the scientific name tell you about the organism? ______ Genus + Species ______
10. Know what types or organisms go into each of the 6 Kingdoms

Animalia __dogs, humans, insects __ Plantae ___ trees, flowers, grass _____
Fungi ____ mushrooms and yeast ___ Protista ____ paramecium, ameba, euglena, algae ______
Archaebacteria _ extremophiles _____ Eubacteria ___ E.coli, salmonella, streptococcus ___

11. Know the difference between a(n):
prokaryote and eukaryote _ prokayotes do not have a nucleus______ unicellular and multicellular ___1 celled; more than 1 cell ______
heterotroph and autotroph _ consumes food, makes food _____ mobile and sessile ____ can move, cannot move_

12. How did Darwin’s Theory explain the different shapes and sizes among the beaks of finches on the Galapagos?
_____________ each bird was adapted to an island's particular food source __________________________________

13. According to the cladogram, which two species are most closely related? ____ scyphozoa and cubazoa______________

## Section D: Kingdom Protista and Simple Animals

Topics: Protozoans, Algae, Parasites, The Animal Kingdom, Sponges, Cnidarians

1. Label and Identify Each of the Protists

| Euglena | Ameba | Paramecium |

Euglena Label

A. flagella
B. eyespot
C. contractile vacuole

D. cell membrane (or pellicle)
E. chloroplasts
AB. nucleus

Ameba Label

A. cell membrane
B. nucleus
C. contractile vacuole
D. pseudopodia
E. food vacuole

Parmecium Label

A. macronucleus
B. micronucleus
C. oral groove (or mouth pore)
D. anal pore
E. contractile vacuole

2. What is the function of the:

Chloroplast __________ photosynthesis __________
Contractile Vacuole ______ removes excess water_____________
Micronucleus ________ involved in sexual reproduction _____________
Food Vacuole _______ digests food _______________________
Pseudopodia ______ "false feet", extensions of cytoplasm used for movement and catching food ___
Pellicle ________ stiff membrane surrounding euglena ________
Eyespot _________ detects light ___________

3. How do each of these protists move?

Euglena _________ flagella ________________________________
Paramecium ________ cilia ____________________________________
Ameba ___ pseudopodia _______________________________

4. Animal-Like Protists are called _____ protozoa _____________

5. To what KINGDOM do the ameba, euglena and paramecium belong? __ Protista _____________
6. Check each organism if it is UNICELLULAR

__ X _ Paramecium ______ Hydra _____ Sponge _____ Roundworm __X _ Ameba

7. How does a person get malaria? _ getting bitten by a mosquito, which transmits the protist plasmodium into the blood

8. Where are most protozoans found? _______ in water ________
9. What organisms belong to the PHYLUM PORIFERA? ___ sponges _________
10. Some animals are asymmetrical, what are the two types of symmetry found in other animals? bilateral and radial

11. On the animal below, label the dorsal (B), ventral (C), posterior (D) and anterior (A) sides

12. Unlike other animals, sponges do NOT have (check all that apply)

_X___ symmetry ______ cells ___X__ tissues _______ the ability to reproduce

13. Can sponges reproduce asexually? ___ yes ____ Sexually? ___ yes____

14. What is a hermaphrodite? ___________ can produce both sperm and eggs _____________
15. What does “sessile” mean? _________ lives attached to a surface, does not move __________________
16. Name an organism that is sessile: ___________ sponge, hydra, coral, anemone ______

17. To be classified into the animal kingdom, organisms must be (check all that apply)
__X _ Multicellular __X __ Heterotrophic _____ Hermaphroditic ____ Mobile

18. Cnidarians use their tentacles for: ________ capturing prey ________________________________

19. Which of the following forms is the medusa (first) ? Which is the polyp (second)?

## Section D: Invertebrates

Topics Covered: Roundworms, Flatworms, Mollusks, Annelids, Arthropods

1. What is regeneration? _ regrowth of body parts __________
2. Roundworms belong to the Kingdom _____ Animalia ____ and the Phylum ___ Nematoda _________

3. How might a person contract a tapeworm? ____ eating contaminated food _________________
4. Where does a parasitic tapeworm live in the body? [ blood / intestine / brain ]

5. What is the intermediate host of the schistosoma worm? _____ snail ___________________
How would a person contract schistosomiasis? ____ stepping on snails or wading in water where snails live _________
6. Flatworms, such as the planarian, belong to the Kingdom ___ Animalia ______________
and the Phylum _____ Platyhelminthes __________________

7. What Phylum includes all the segmented worms, like a leech or earthworm? ___ Annelida ______

8. What group of animals is characterized by an exoskeleton? ____ Arthropods ____________

9. What are mandibles? _____ chewing mouthparts that open from side to side ____________

10. What animal has suckers, a beak, and a fin (most of you dissected it in class) _____ squid ____

11. The digestive tract of an earthworm includes the following structures. Place them in the correct order.

__2_ Pharynx __4_ Gizzard __5__ Intestine _1___ Mouth __3__ Crop _6___ Anus

12. In most animals, the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach is the __ esophagus ________

13. Which of those structures grinds the food? __ gizzard ___
Which stores food? __ crop ____________
Which is a muscle to help suck food (soil) in? ____ pharynx _______
14. The arrow on the drawing points to the ____ clitellum _____
What is the function of the structure? ____ reproduction _____

15. What are the three parts of the insect body plan? ______ head, thorax, abdomen

16. How many legs does an insect have? __ 6 __ How many legs does a spider have? __ 8 __

17. What is the function of the “foot” of the mollusk? ____ movement _______

18. Do insects have antennae? __ yes __ Do spiders? __ no ________
Do crustaceans have antennae? ______ no __________

19. What was the stiff shell-like structure you removed from the squid during the dissection? ___ pen ____

20. For each of the pairs, circle the set that is most closely related

Always look for the two that are in the same taxon (group)

a. spiders & scorpions - both are chelicerates
b. spiders & crabs

a. sea anemone & sponge
b. jellyfish & hydra - both are cnidarians

a. earthworm & leech - both are annelida
b. flatworm & roundworm

a. crab & lobster - both are crustaceans
b. lobster & millipede

a. squid & jellyfish
b. squid & snail - both are mollusks

21. Identify the following organisms (mollusk, tapeworm, annelid, flatworm, cnidarian (hydra), crustacean)

............................crustacean.....................................................flatworm ...................................................hydra

............................mollusk.....................................................tapeworm ...................................................annelid

22. On the Crayfish, identify the

Cheliped - claws

Cephalothorax - front section of the body

Abdomen - back section

Walking Legs - larger, in the front

Swimmerets - smaller, attached to abdomen

23. Of all the phyla, which contains the largest number of species? ____ arthropoda ____________

24. The tentacles of a cephalopod are used for what purpose? __ capturing food ______________

25. On the picture of the squid, identify the:

Eyes

Tentacle

Arm

Fin

Mouth

26. Check the box if it applies to the organism:

 Crustacean Spider Insect Has antennae X X Member of Phylum Arthropoda X X X Has 3 body segments X Has 2 body segments, one being a cephalothorax X X Has chelicerae X

27. What is metamorphosis? __ changes that insects and other organisms go through as they age, sometimes resulting in dramatic changes, such as a caterpillar becoming a butterfly _________________________

Bio 1A also has additional anatomy labeling: squid, hydra, sponge, crayfish, earthworm