Tissues of the Body - Anatomy and Physiology

Google Slides | Notes Packet

Tissue - a group or mass of similar cells working together to perform commun functions

There are 4 major types of tissue :

1. Epithelial Tissue

General Characteristics:

- Found throughout the body, covers all body surfaces both inside and out.
- Main glandular tissue.
- Attached to underlying connective tissue at the basement membrane
- Usually has no vascular tissue - blood supply
- Cells reproduce rapidly results in: rapid healing

Functions: Protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, sensory perception

categorized based on the shape of the cells and the layer sof cells.


Form: flat and thin, single layer
Function: diffusion and filtration
Found in: air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries


B. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL - single layer, cube-shaped cells.

Function: Secretion and absorption
Found: Lining of kidney tubules, ducts of glands, covering surface of ovaries

C. SIMPLE COLUMNAR - single layer, long cells with their
Function: Secretion and absorption
Found in the lining of digestive tract and uterus
- contains scattered goblet cells to secrete mucus
- and microvilli increase surface area

Label image:

columnar cells

D. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS - muli-layered, squamous cells
Functions in protection. Found lining body cavities like the skin and mouth

*What is Wrong with Ella's Skin

- mutations in the COL7A1 gene affects the protein collagen
- collagen acts like a "glue" to anchor the epidermis to the dermis|
- as the dermis pulls away, blisters form
- this can also affect the lining of the mouth and esophagus, making it difficult to swallow

E. PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR - appear "stratified" but really a single layer with nuclei at various levels giving the appearance of layers.
-Can have cilia (tiny, hair-like projections)
-And goblet cells, which secrete mucus

- Function: secretion and cilia-aided movement
- Location: lining air passages like the trachea and tubes of the reproductive system


*What happens if the cilia of cells do not work properly? *Reference to a previous case on a child who has primary ciliary dyskinesia, which caused excess mucus and respiratory infections

F. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM - thick, layered cuboidal cells. "Stretchable" tissue, also forms barrier to block diffusion.
Found: lining of urinary bladder

transitional epithelium

G. Glandular Epithelium

Cells specialized to secrete substances; make up the body's glands

Exocrine - salivary and sweat
Endocrine - hormones

Assignment: What Causes Goosebumps

2. Connective Tissue

General Characteristics:

-Most abundant tissue in your body, found throughout
-Binds structures together
-Provides support, protection, framework, fills space, stores fat, produces blood cells, fights infection
-Composed of more scattered cells with intercellular matrix
-Made up of a ground substance (fluid, semi-solid) and fibers
-Most has a good blood supply
-Cells can reproduce

Three common types of cells:

1. Mast cells (prevent clots)
2. Macrphages (consumers)
3. Fibroblasts (produce fibers)

Main types of fibers:

-collagenous fibers Strong, flexible; Found: bones, ligaments, tendons
- elastic fibers Found in ears and vocal cords

Color the Matrix of Connective Tissue



Tendons - connect bone to bone
Ligaments - connect muscle to bone

CARTILAGE (all cartilage cells are called chondrocytes)

HYALINE CARTILAGE - covers ends of joints

ELASTIC CARTILAGE - external ears and larynx

FIBROCARTILAGE - cushions vertebrae

BONE TISSUE - Osseous tissue. Rigid due to mineral salts.

BLOOD TISSUE - circulates throughout the body

3. Muscle Tissue

A. Skeletal - striated, moves the bones
B. Smooth - digestive system
C. Cardiac - heart

4. Nerve Tissue - Found in brain, spinal cord, nerves

A. Neurons - transmit signals
B. Neuroglia - protection, support