Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Essential Question: What happened to Kati Mori at the London Marathon?

Anatomy: structure of body parts
Physiology: function of body parts; what they do and how.

How are they related?

 

Characteristics (Processes) of Life

  1. Movement - self initiated change in __________, motion of internal parts
  2. Responsiveness - ability to sense changes and ______________
  3. Growth - increase in _________________
  4. Reproduction - DNA passed from parents to _________________
  5. Respiration - obtaining ____________________
  6. Digestion - chemically changing (breaking down) ______________
  7. Absorption -passage of digested products (food) through membranes and into ___________________________
  8. Circulation - movement of ________________________ throughout the body
  9. Assimilation -changing absorbed substances into ______________________ different substances
  10. Excretion - removal of ______________________

**Video: How a Bean becomes a Fart

1. What substance in beans is difficult to digest?

2. What is an enzyme?

2. Which of the life processes from the list above were mentioned in the video?

Review the list of life processes and consider Kati Mori’s symptoms.    Choose three of the processes that you think might be related.

 

Metabolism: All physical and chemical changes occurring in an organism

All of these processes require: ENERGY - Where does the energy for our bodily processes come from?

Needs: Water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure

Homeostasis: Tendency of the body to maintain a stable, balanced internal environment.

 

Feedback Loops - how the body makes adjustments when the environment changes

Negative Feedback Loop

 

Positive Feedback Loop

 

 

What is hyponatremia?

How does Kati's story relate to HOMEOSTASIS?

 

Which of the 10 life processes were compromised in Kati's situation?

 

 

Levels of Organization (from simplest to most complex)

Atoms → Molecules → Macromolecules →Organelles → Cells →Tissues → Organs → Organ Systems → Organism

General Organization of the Body:

Axial Portion - head, neck, trunk | Appendicular Portion - arms & legs

1. Several body cavities and layers of membranes within cavities
2. Variety of organs and organ systems within cavities
                                         (VISCERA = internal organs. also: "visceral organs")

What does "eviscerate" mean?

 

Body Cavities (see p.9)

Dorsal Cavity | Ventral Cavity

1. Thoracic Cavity - right and left separated by mediastinum.
2. Abdominopelvic Cavity (abdominal + pelvic cavity)

DIAPHRAGM - separates thoracic and abdominal cavity

SEROUS MEMBRANE - two layers, covers organs

outer layer = PARIETAL layer and forms a "lining"
inner layer = VISCERAL layer, covers the surface of organs

1. Pleura (or pleural membrane) - surrounds the lungs
2. Pericardium (or pericardial membrane) - surrounds the heart
3. Peritoneum (or peritoneal membrane) - surrounds organs within the abdominopelvic cavity

*Between the layers of each membrane is a lubricating fluid which is called SEROUS FLUID


ORGAN SYSTEMS How does this system maintain homeostasis?
1. Integumentary Body covering. Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands.
- protect underlying tissues, regulate body temperature
 
2. Skeletal Bones, ligaments, cartilage
- Support, movement, protection; production of blood cells
 
3. Muscular Muscles of the body
- Movement, posture, production of body heat
 
4. Nervous Brain, spinal cord, nerves
- Communication, mental activities
 
5. Endocrine Glands = pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes
- Secretion of hormones, chemical communication
 
6. Digestive Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines,
- Breakdown of food (digestion), absorption
 
7. Circulatory Heart, blood vessels, blood.
- Transports materials throughout the body.
 
8. Lymphatic ( Immune System) - fights infections  
8. Urinary Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
- filters wastes from the blood, maintains water balance
 
9. Reproductive Reproductive organs, primarily the ovaries (females) and testes (males)
 

Anatomical Terminology

Anatomical Position

Superior / Inferior

Medial / Lateral

Anterior/ Posterior

Proximal / Distal

Superficial / Deep

Sagittal | Transverse | Frontal (coronal)

*Learn to Identify and Describe the Body Regions (Body Regions Handout)

*Learn the names of specialized medical fields. (Medical and Applied Science)