Reading 6-1 Name __________________________

1. The human body produces _____________ million new cells per second.
2. _________________ are an organism's reproductive cells, such as sperm or egg.
3. _________________ stores the information that tells cells which proteins to make.
4. Define binary fission: _____________________________________________
5. When E. coli 0157:H7 is eaten, what can happen to the person who eats it? ____________________________________________________ (See "Real Life")
6. A __________________ is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein.
7. A chromosome consists of ____________ tightly coiled around _________________
8. The two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome are called ____________________
9. Two chromatids are held together by the _______________________
10. What are homologous chromosomes? ___________________________________________
11. When a cell, such as a somatic cell contains two sets of chromosomes, it is _______________
When a cell contains only one set of chromosomes, it is ________________

12. Use table 6-1 to determine the diploid and haploid numbers of a:
Garden pea ____________ (diploid) ______________ (haploid)
Orangutan ____________ (diploid) ______________ (haploid)
Human ____________ (diploid) ______________ (haploid)
Dog ____________ (diploid) ______________ (haploid)

13. The word "chromosome" comes from what greek word chromo, which means _____________ and soma, which means ________________
14. Any individual with a Y chromosome is __________________ and any individual without a Y chromosome is __________________
15. What are the sex chromosomes of grasshoppers? _______ (female) _______ (male)
16. Humans who are missing even one of their 46 chromosomes do not [ reproduce / survive ]
17. Humans with more than two copies of a chromosome have a condition called ______________
18. What is a karyotype? ______________________________________________
19. List three characteristics of Down Syndrome _______________________________________
20. Down syndrome is more likely to occur in [ younger / older ] mothers.
21. Extra copies of a chromosome occur when a chromosome fails to separate, this is called ___________________________________
22. People with down syndrome have an extra chromosome number ________
23. (Health Watch) What procedure involves using a need to extract fluid from around the fetus? ______________________
24. Changes in an organisms chromosome structure are called_____________________________
25. What are the four types of chromosome mutations ______________________________________