Chapter 18 (Reading Guide)

1. Species Evolve in Response to ________________________
2. Back and forth evolutionary adjustments between interacting members of an ecosystem is called ____________________________________________________________
3. Give an example of predation: __________________________________________
4. Why don't parasites kill their hosts? ___________________________________________________
5. Give an example of an external parasite: ____________________________________
And an internal parasite __________________________________
6. What are secondary compounds? ______________________________________________________
7. How do cabbage butterflies avoid the defenses of mustard plants? ____________________________
8. Symbiotic Species are Shaped by ________________________________
9. Define symbiosis: ___________________________________________________________________
10. What are the three types of symbiotic relationships?
11. Define Mutualism: _________________________________________________________________
12. Give an example of mutualism: _______________________________________________________
13. Define Commensalism: ______________________________________________________________
14. Give an example of commensalisms: __________________________________________________
18-2 How Competition Shapes Communities
15. Common Use of Scarce Resources Leads to __________________________________
16. What are some resources that species might compete for? _______________________________
17. What is a niche? _________________________________________________________________
18. Describe three characteristics of a jaguar's niche (figure 18-4)
19. How do warblers exhibit niche restriction?_______________________________________________
20. Which is larger: Realized Niche or Fundamental Niche? __________________________________

DATA LAB - Altering an Organism's Fundamental Niche (page 387)
21. What is the preferred length of Species A's prey? ____________________
22. What is the maximum height at which the species will feed? _______________________
23. When species B is introduced, which feeds on the same prey, but hunts at a different time of day, what will happen? (circle)
a. Species A will have more food. b. Species A will have less food c. No change will occur

24. If Species C is introduces, which only feed on prey that are between 10 and 13 mm long, what will happen?
a. Species A will have more food. b. Species A will have less food c. No change will occur

25. Competition Can Limit How Species ____________________________________________________
26. What are barnacles? ________________________________________________________________
27. What prevented Chthamalus from occupying deeper zones? _______________________________
28. Competition Without Division of Resources Leads to ___________________________
29. What is competitive exclusion? _______________________________________________________
30. What happened when P. aurelia and P. caudatum were placed into the same culture tubes? __________________________________________________________________
31. What happened when P. caudatum and P. bursaria were placed into the same culture tubes? ___________________________________________________________
32. Why did the removal of sea stars result in the decrease of the number of species?
33. What is biodiversity? _______________________________________________________________
34. Tilman found that the more species a plot had, the [ greater / lesser ] the productivity.
He also found that the biologically diverse plots were [ more / less ] stable. (circle correct choices)

18-3: Major Biological Communities

35. What is climate? _____________________________________________________
36. What are the two most important elements of climate? _________________________________
37. Define biome. ___________________________________________________________________
View the map on page 392 to answer the following
38. The majority of the eastern part of the U.S. is what type of biome? ________________________
39. What are the three largest biomes found in Africa? _______________________________________
40. What biome dominates the majority of Canada? ____________________________________
41. What biome is found in the center of Australia? ____________________________
42. What biome is consistently found along the equator of several continents? ____________________
43. What two biomes are found in Alaska? _______________________________________
44. The middle of the United States (Kansas, Nebraska, etc) is what type of biome? ________________