Name:____________________________________________Date: _______

Reading Guide: Chapter 1.1, The Science of Biology ( OpenStax Biology 2E )

1. What is the definition of biology? _________________________________________________

2. What is the definition of science? ___________________________________________________

3. A suggested explanation for an event is called a(n): ____________________________________

4. A tested and confirmed explanation for observed phenomena is called a(n): ________________________

5. Science can be defined as fields of study that attempt to _____________________________ the nature of the _____________________________.

6. Fields of science related to the physical world are called _______________________ sciences.

7. What subjects would be part of this type of science? __________________________________

Scientific Reasoning

8. _____________________________ reasoning uses related observations to arrive at a general conclusion.

9. How are brain studies an example of inductive reasoning?

10. Deductive reasoning is used in ____________________________ - based science.

11. Deductive reasoning uses a ___________________________________ to forecast specific results.

12. What is the goal of descriptive science? ______________________________________________

13. How was velcro invented? ________________________________________________________

The Scientific Method

14. What scientist first documented the scientific method? _________________________________

15. The process starts with an ________________________ which leads to a ____________________

16. What is the typical format of a prediction? _________________________________________

17. A valid hypothesis must be testable and also be _______________________________________.

18. What distinguishes sciences from non-sciences? _______________________________________

19. Any part of the experiment that can vary or change is called the _____________________________

20. What is the control group? ______________________________________________________________

21. Rejecting one hypothesis means that the other hypothesis is accepted. True / False

22. Deduction proceeds from the ___________________ to the ____________________

23. What type of reasoning has occurred when scientists reach a general conclusion from a number of specific
observations? _________________________________________

24. Figure 1.6 The scientific method is used to solve an everyday problem. Match the scientific method steps (numbered items) with the process of solving the everyday problem (lettered items). Based on the results of the experiment, is the hypothesis correct? If it is incorrect, propose some alternative hypotheses.

____ observation                  a) there is something wrong with the electrical outlet
____ question                        b) if something is wrong with the outlet, the coffeemaker also won’t work when plugged into it
____ hypothesis                    c) my toaster does not toast my bread
____ prediction                     d) I plug my coffeemaker into the outlet
____ experiment                   e) My coffeemaker works
____ result                             f) Why doesn’t the toaster work?

25. Figure 1.7 Decide if each of the following is an example of inductive (I) or deductive reasoning (D)

_____All flying birds and insects have wings. Birds and insects flap their wings as they move through the air. Therefore, wings enable flight.
_____Insects generally survive mild winters better than harsh ones. Therefore, insect pests will become more problematic if global temperatures increase.
_____Chromosomes, the carriers of DNA, separate into daughter cells during cell division. Therefore, each daughter cell will have the same chromosome set as the mother cell.
_____Animals as diverse as humans, insects, and wolves all exhibit social behavior. Therefore, social behavior must have an evolutionary advantage.

Two Types of Science: Basic Science and Applied Science

26. What is the goal of “basic science?” ______________________________________________________

27. What is the goal of “applied science?” _____________________________________________________

28. What is the Human Genome Project? ____________________________________________________

29. What is serendipity? ________________________________________________________________

30. Where do scientists publish their works? _________________________________________________

31. A summary at the beginning of the scientific paper is called the _____________________________

32. What other sections are included in a scientific paper (IMRaD)?