3-3 Cycles of Matter

1. What four elements make up most living things? _____________________________________________
2. Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is ___________________________ between ecosystems.
3. Elements are passed from one organism to another through ______________________________ cycles.
4. You inhale oxygen atoms that might have been inhaled by ___________________ millions of years ago.

The Water Cycle
5. The process by which water changes to a liquid form (from a gas) is ______________________________
6. When water evaporates from the leaves of plants, it is called ____________________________________
7. Water returns to the earth in the form of ______________________________________________ (name 4)
8. See Fig 3-11. Condensation leads to _______________________________________.
9. See Fig 3-11. Water seeps into ground water which eventually runs into the _________________or is taken up by _________________

Nutrient Cycles
10. All the chemical substances that an organisms needs to sustain life is called _______________________
11. Living organisms use nutrients to build _________________ and carry out life processes.
12. What two elements form carbon dioxide? ________________________________________

13. See Fig 3-13. Which of the following activities RELEASE (R) carbon, and which TAKE UP (T) carbon?
____ Photosynthesis _____ Respiration ______ Volcanic Activity
____ Erosion _____ Human Activity (burning fossil fuels)

14. What percentage of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas? ______
15. What is a major component of plant fertilizer? ________________
16. See Fig 3-14. What organism takes nitrogen from the atmosphere? ________________________ NH3 and NO2 are taken up by [ producers / consumers ]
17. What important molecule of heredity contains phosphorous? ______________
18. Where is phosphorus found in the biosphere? _______________________________

Nutrient Limitation
19. The rate at which organic matter is created by producers is called primary _______________________
20. What is the limiting nutrient for oceans? ________________________
21. What causes algal blooms? ______________________________