Reading Guide 3-1, 3-2

3-1 What Is Ecology

fish1. Define Ecology: _________________________________________
2. The __________________________ contains the portions of the planet in which all life exists.
3. A group of organisms that are similar and can produce offspring is called a _________________________
4. A _______________________________ is a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
5. Different populations all living in the same area is referred to as a _________________________________
6. An ecosystem includes all the ______________________________ that live in a particular place , together with their ___________________________, or physical environment.
7. What are the three basic approaches for ecological research? __________________________________________________________
8. __________________________________ is used to study phenomena that occur over a long period of time.

3-2 Energy Flow

9. The flow of ________________________________ through an ecosystem is one of the most important factors that determines the system's capacity to sustain ________________________.
10. What is the main source of energy for life on earth? ______________
11. Organisms that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals are called __________________________
They are also called __________________________________
12. The process of capturing solar energy is called _____________________________________________
13. Complete the formula for photosynthesis:
Carbon dioxide + _________________________ Carbohydrates + ___________________
14. What are the most common type of photosynthetic bacteria? ________________________________
15. During _____________________________________, organisms use chemical energy to create carbohydrates.
16. What is a heterotroph? ________________________________________________________________
Heterotrophs are also called ____________________________
17. What do each of the following eat?
Herbivore _____________________________________________
Carnivore _____________________________________________
Omnivore _____________________________________________
Detritivore ______________________________________________
18. A _____________________________________ breaks down organic matter (fungi, bacteria)
19. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one _______________________________, from the sun or inorganic compounds to ______________________ and then to various ____________________________.
20. A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten is the _________________
21. A _________________________ links food chains together.

22. See Figure 3-8 (FOOD WEB)

a. What do zooplankton eat? ____________________________
b. What three animals eat grasshoppers? ___________________________________________
c. What animal eats fish? ________________________________
d. Name two animals that are herbivores ____________________________________________
e. Name two animals that are omnivores _____________________________________________

23. Each step in a food chain or web is called a _______________________ _____________________
24. Only about _______ percent of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to the next level.
25. The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called _____________________________
26. Which ecosystem might have a pyramid of numbers where there are less producers than consumers? _______________________

Multiple choice

1. The image represents a:
a. pyramid of numbers
b. pyramid of biomass
c. pyramid of food webs

2. Which organism has the largest population?
a. bluetit b. caterpillar
c. sparrowhawk d. oak tree

3. A group of individuals that belong to a single species and live together in an area is a (n):
a. community b. ecosystem
c. population d. biosphere

4. The source of energy for all living things on Earth is:
a. chemical energy b. sunlight c. wind energy d. autotrophs

5. A heterotroph is also called a(n):
a. consumer b. autotroph c. producer d. decomposer
6. An ecosystem can support more _______________ than _____________.
a. producers, autotrophs b. producers, consumers
c. carnivores, herbivores d. consumers, producers