DNAGenetics Science Learning Center

Objective: Students will browse the Genetics Science Learning Center Website to learn about basic genetics, including the structure of DNA, transcription and translation, and the relationship between genes, proteins and traits.

Site Location: .............Click on the link that says "Tour the Basics" .

What is DNA?

2. What does DNA stand for? __________________________________________________
3. Why is DNA called a blueprint? __________________________________________________________
4. The "twisted ladder" shape of the DNA molecule is called a _________________________________
5. Name the four bases found in a DNA molecule: _____________________________________________
6. A DNA strand is made of ______________________ which make up ___________________ which make up sentences.
7. These "sentences" are called _________________________________________________________

Hint - Look at the navigation bar at the top, you'll need to click on "What is a Gene" to continue.

What is a Gene?

8. What is a gene? ________________________________________________________
9. Blood cells use a protein called _________________________________ to capture and carry oxygen.
10. When a gene is changed, it is said to be _________________________________________________
11. A mutation in the hemoglobin gene causes what disorder: _____________________________________

What is a Chromosome?

12. If you stretched out all the DNA from a single cell, how long would it be?? _________________________
13. How many chromosomes are in a human cell? _____ a mosquito? _____ a carp? _____

What is a Protein?

14. How is a protein like a car engine? _____________________________________________________
15. Receptor proteins are responsible for picking up ___________________________________________
16. Each gene in DNA encodes information on how to make a ____________________________________
17. Once in the cytoplasm, the ___________________________ reads the message.

What is Heredity?

18. The passing of traits from parents to child is the basis of ____________________________
19. Every child receives______________ of its chromosomes from his mother and half from his __________
20. When a sperm and egg join, they create a single cell called a ___________________________________
21. Each child inherits a __________________________ set of chromosomes.

"What is a Trait?"

22. Give an example of a physical trait: _________________________________________________
23. A dog fetching a bone is an example of what kind of trait? _________________________________
24. Scientists describe the set of information for each form of trait as an ___________________________
25. What word is used to describe having two of the same alleles? _________________________ What letters would be used to describe someone with a straight thumb? _______
26. What letters would be used to describe a heterozygous combination? _________
27. What combination of alleles are possible in a child if the parents are Hh and Hh (there are four)? ______________
28. Give an example of incomplete dominance: _______________________________

Go to page on Molecules of Inheritance for the next activities

"Build a DNA Molecule"

30. Build a DNA molecule. What is the base pair rule? ____________________________________________

Practice building DNA for a while. On a scale of 1 to 10, how good are you at building DNA? _________

Transcribe and Translate a Gene

31. Define transcription: _______________________________________________________________
32. Define translation: _________________________________________________________________
33. Follow the instructions for the activity. List the amino acid sequence you created.________________________________

"What Makes a Firefly Glow"

30. Fireflies glow to attract a __________________ and to avoid ______________________
31. RNA polymerase binds to the ______________________ gene.
32. When transcription is complete, the LUC mRNA moves to the _____________________
33. The ribosome interprets the mRNA to produce a string of _____________________________
34. In order to become a functioning luciferase enzyme, the string must ____________________________
35. The enzymes bind to ____________________________to create light.