1. In a certain population, disruptive selection is occurring. In this population, which is most likely to survive?
organisms with average traits
organisms with extreme traits
organisms that sexually select
organisms that are small
2. In Amish populations, the incidence of a certain type of dwarfism is much higher than those of other populations. What principle explains this?
both of these
neither of these
3. This picture illustrates what type of selection?
4. In a population of woolybeasts, individuals with long snouts tend to survive better on an island that has burrowing termites. Over time, the woolybeast population consists of individuals with extremely long snouts. This is an example of:
5. Cheetahs nearly became extinct but recovery efforts managed to save them. Now, most cheetahs are genetically identical. This is due to:
the bottleneck effect
6. Any characteristic that can help an organism survive and/or reproduce can be called a(n):
7. Which of the following is NOT necessary for evolution to occur?
variation within the species
inheritance of characteristics
all of these are necessary
8. A population of birds is blown by a storm to an island off the mainland. The island has very few trees, and the bird population on the island develops new nesting behaviors. Mainland birds nest in trees, island birds nest on the ground. After a long period of time, the island birds are reunited with the mainland birds, it is observed that the two populations can no longer interbreed. This is an example of:
all of these
9. What model of evolution suggests that species stay the same for a long period of time, then change abruptly due to mutations in key genes?
good genes hypothesis
10. Female guppies tend to choose brightly colored mates. Over time, the populaton of guppies becomes more colorful. This is an example of:
11. Members of different species do not normally produce offspring due to:
differing courtship rituals
varying breeding times
all of these
12. Speciation occurs when:
two populations become geographically isolated
one population moves to a different area
enough differences accumulate between two populations that they can no longer interbreed
gene mutations accumulate
13. This picture illustrates:
14. Prezygotic isolating mechanisms ensure that:
hybrids are never conceived or born
hybrids are not fertile
hybrids are more likely to survive
genes do not mutate and affect the entire population
15. Darwin surmised that a few finches migrated to the Galapagos from the mainland. These finches gave rise to the many species of finches on the islands today. This is an example of:
the founder effect