|spider monkey||sea monkey|
|mud puppy||horned toad|
|sea horse||*these names do not always give accurate clues for what the organism is|
*Common names can be confusing and names can vary by region.
About 1.5 million species named
2-100 million species yet to be discovered
Taxonomy =science of
--groups similar organisms together
--assigns each a name
Organisms have common & scientific name -all organisms have only 1 scientific name
-usually Latin or Greek
-developed by Carolus Linnaeus
This two-word naming system
-written in italics (or underlined)
-1st word is Capitalized --Genus
-2nd word is lowercase ---species
Examples: Felis concolor, Ursus arctos, Homo sapiens, Panthera leo , Panthera tigris
The scientific name is always italicized or underlined. Genus is capitalized. Species is not. Scientific names can be abbreviated by using the capital letter of the genus and a period: Example. P. leo (lion)Members of the same genus are closely related.
Only members of the same species can interbreed (under natural conditions)
Some hybrids do occur under unnatural conditions: Ligers are crosses between tigers and lions.
Linneaus - devised the current system of classification, which uses the following schema
Examine how these animals are organized into the different groups:
Similarities in DNA and RNA
|number of Cells||energy||cell type||examples|
|archaebacteria||unicellular||some autotrophic, most chemotrophic||prokaryote||"extremophiles"|
|eubacteria||unicellular||autotrophic and heterotrophic||prokaryote||bacteria, E. coli|
|fungae||most multicellular||heterotrophic||eukaryote||mushrooms, yeast|
|animalia||multicellular||heterotrophic||eukaryote||humans, insects, worms|
|protista||most unicellular||heterotrophic or autotrophic||eukaryote||ameba, paramecium, algae|
A dichotomous key is a written set of choices that leads to the name of an organism. Scientists use these to identify unknown organisms.
Consider the following animals. They are all related, but each is a separate species. Use the dichotomous key below to determine the species of each.
|1.||Has green colored body ......go to 2|
|Has purple colored body ..... go to 4|
|2.||Has 4 legs .....go to 3|
|Has 8 legs .......... Deerus octagis|
|3.||Has a tail ........ Deerus pestis|
|Does not have a tail ..... Deerus magnus|
|4.||Has a pointy hump ...... Deerus humpis|
|Does not have a pointy hump.....go to 5|
|5.||Has ears .........Deerus purplinis|
|Does not have ears ......Deerus deafus|
Answers: A. Deerus magnus B. Deerus pestis C. Deerus octagis D. Deerus purplinis E. Deerus deafus F. Deerus humpis *note that all of these organisms are in the same genus.