Somatic and Special Senses

10.1 Introduction

Sensory Receptors - detect environmental changes and trigger nerve impulses

What is synesthesia?

 

General vs Special Senses

 

10.2 Receptors and Sensations

1. Chemoreceptors = _____________________________
2. Pain receptors = _______________________________
3. Thermoreceptors = _____________________________
4. Mechanoreceptors = ____________________________
5. Photoreceptors = ______________________________

Sensation = feeling that occurs when a brain interprets a sensory impulse
Projection = process where the cerebrum causes a feeling to stem from a source (eyes, ears)

Sensory adaptation =

10.3 Somatic Senses

Exteroreceptive

Visceroreceptive

Proprioceptive

Sense of Pain

Visceral

Acute

Chronic

How is the Universal Pain Assessment Tool used by health care professionals?

 

Where do most people obtain prescription drugs for non-medical use? How can abuse of these drugs be prevented?

 

10.4 Special Senses

Smell (olfactory)

Taste (gustatory)

Hearing and Equilibrium:

Sight

10.5 Sense of Smell

Olfactory organs contain olfactory receptors

Odor Molecule →

tongue

Why do smells trigger memories?

 

10.6 Sense of Taste

Taste buds = Papillae  

What are the five types of taste?                                                                   

Why does cilantro taste like soap to some people?

 

10.7 Sense of Hearing

External Ear = Auricle (pinna) - outer ear | External Auditory Meatus | Auriculares muscle

Middle Ear (tympanic cavity)

Eardrum, also called tympanum

What are the 3 auditory ossicles? (identify below)

 

Auditory Tube (eustachian tube) -

 

Inner Ear

Labyrinth - communicating chambers and tubes

Osseous Labyrinth and Membranous Labyrinth
........Perilymph and Endolymph (fluids within the labyrinth)

Semicircular Canals - sense of equilibrium

What is a myringotomy?


Cochlea - sense or hearing

Organ of Corti - hearing receptors, hair cells detect vibrations

Why do we lose are hearing as we age?

What is a cochlear implant?

 

Steps in Hearing

1. Sound waves enter external ______________________________________
2. __________________________ vibrates
3. Auditory ______________________(malleus, incus, stapes) amplify vibrations
4. Stapes hits oval window and transmits vibrations to _______________________
5. _________________ contain receptor cells (hair cells) that deform from vibrations
6. Impulses sent to the _____________________________ nerve
7. Auditory cortex of the ________________lobe interprets sensory impulses
8. _____________________ dissipates vibrations within the cochlea

What is the relationship between hair cells and loss of hearing?

What is tinnitus?

 

10.8 Sense of Equilibrium

Static Equilibrium -

Dynamic Equilibrium (semicircular canals) -

Cerebellum -

 

10.9 Disorders of the Sensory System

 

 

10.10 Careers Related to Hearing