Somatic and Special Senses

10.1 Introduction

Sensory Receptors - detect environmental changes and trigger nerve impulses

What is synesthesia?


General vs Special Senses


10.2 Receptors and Sensations

1. Chemoreceptors = _____________________________
2. Pain receptors = _______________________________
3. Thermoreceptors = _____________________________
4. Mechanoreceptors = ____________________________
5. Photoreceptors = ______________________________

Sensation = feeling that occurs when a brain interprets a sensory impulse
Projection = process where the cerebrum causes a feeling to stem from a source (eyes, ears)

Sensory adaptation =

10.3 Somatic Senses




Sense of Pain




How is the Universal Pain Assessment Tool used by health care professionals?


Where do most people obtain prescription drugs for non-medical use? How can abuse of these drugs be prevented?


10.4 Special Senses

Smell (olfactory)

Taste (gustatory)

Hearing and Equilibrium:


10.5 Sense of Smell

Olfactory organs contain olfactory receptors

Odor Molecule →


Why do smells trigger memories?


10.6 Sense of Taste

Taste buds = Papillae  

What are the five types of taste?                                                                   

Why does cilantro taste like soap to some people?


10.7 Sense of Hearing

External Ear = Auricle (pinna) - outer ear | External Auditory Meatus | Auriculares muscle

Middle Ear (tympanic cavity)

Eardrum, also called tympanum

What are the 3 auditory ossicles? (identify below)


Auditory Tube (eustachian tube) -


Inner Ear

Labyrinth - communicating chambers and tubes

Osseous Labyrinth and Membranous Labyrinth
........Perilymph and Endolymph (fluids within the labyrinth)

Semicircular Canals - sense of equilibrium

What is a myringotomy?

Cochlea - sense or hearing

Organ of Corti - hearing receptors, hair cells detect vibrations

Why do we lose are hearing as we age?

What is a cochlear implant?


Steps in Hearing

1. Sound waves enter external ______________________________________
2. __________________________ vibrates
3. Auditory ______________________(malleus, incus, stapes) amplify vibrations
4. Stapes hits oval window and transmits vibrations to _______________________
5. _________________ contain receptor cells (hair cells) that deform from vibrations
6. Impulses sent to the _____________________________ nerve
7. Auditory cortex of the ________________lobe interprets sensory impulses
8. _____________________ dissipates vibrations within the cochlea

What is the relationship between hair cells and loss of hearing?

What is tinnitus?


10.8 Sense of Equilibrium

Static Equilibrium -

Dynamic Equilibrium (semicircular canals) -

Cerebellum -


10.9 Disorders of the Sensory System



10.10 Careers Related to Hearing