Study Guide – Chap 8

1. What chemical helps to regenerate ATP? __________
2. Skeletal muscles are responsible for moving _________________
3. Muscles fibers are made of individual fibers (not filaments) called __________
4. Connective tissue that surrounds fascicles is _________________________
5. Poisons such as botulism that prevent the release of acetylcholine would cause muscles to _________________________

6. What type of muscles are: primarily voluntary ______________________                         makes up the heart _______________________________
                   found in the digestive tract ____________________________

7. What neurotransmitter is associated with the muscles: __________________
8. What cell organelle provides the ATP needed for muscle activity? _______________
9. The gap between the nerve and the muscle is called the? ____________________
10. What is hypertrophy?__________________________ Atrophy? ______________________________
11. A person who has a disease that inhibits the production of cholinesterase would have what kind of symptoms?________
12. Cholinesterase is an enzyme that breaks down ______________________________
13. During a muscle contraction, cross-bridges from between what two structures? _____________________________
14. In a sarcomere, the I band is made of _________________ and the A band is made of ___________________
15. The dark and light fibers of the muscles give cells a _____________________ appearance.
16. The energy source for muscle contraction is ________________
17. Vesicles in the motor neuron store what substance? ___________________________
18. When recruitment occurs, the number of motor units being activated [ decrease / increase ].
19. Sustained contraction of individual fibers, even when muscle is at rest is known as _____________________________
20. The immovable ends of the muscle is the _____________________
       The movable end of the muscle is the __________________________

21. Muscle fatigue is likely due to a buildup of ______________________________
22. A sarcomere is defined as the region between two __________________________
23. The condition where a body becomes stiff after death is called _______________________
24. When ATP has been used, it becomes ______________________
25. What is a motor unit? ________________________________________
26. Myofibrils are composed of ________________________________
27. The muscle fiber membrane is specialized to form a _______________________ at the neuromuscular junction.
28. Which type of connective tissue surrounds fascicles (bundles)? ______________________
What type of tissues surrounds the entire muscle? ________________________
29. The substance that crosses the gap between a neuron and a muscle fiber is the ________
30. Tendons connect _________________ to ________________
31. Bundles of muscle fibers are called _______________________________
32. The minimum amount of stimulus required for a muscle contraction to occur is the __________.
33. What model explains how muscles contract? ____________________________

Place the following in the correct order

_____ Actin and myosin form links
_____ Acetylcholine crosses the gap at the neuromuscular junction
_____ Calcium is released into the sarcoplasm
_____ Myosin cross-bridges pull actin filaments inward.

34. The A bands are [ light / dark ] whereas the I bands are [ light / dark ]
35. The muscle fiber membrane is called the ___________________________
The transport network of the muscle is called the ____________________________

36. You should be able to label the components of a muscle, a sarcomere, and a neuromuscular junction.

A. Sarcolemma
B. Actin
C. Myosin
D. Sarcoplasmic reticulum
E. Sarcomere

AB. Light Band

AC. Dark Band

AD. Cross Bridges

AE. Z line