The Endocrine System 

Google Slides | Notes Handout

What is the System?

  1. Made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones _________________________
  2. Regulation of growth, metabolism, and  ______________________________
  3. Responses to ________________________________
  4. Maintains _____________________________________


glandsMajor Structures & Location

Hypothalamus (part of the brain)

1. Pineal
2.  Pituitary
3.  Thyroid & Parathyroid

4. Thymus
5.  Adrenals
6. Pancreas
7. Ovary
8. Testes

Types of Glands

Endocrine Glands =

Exocrine Glands =

Control of Hormonal Secretions    - Negative versus Positive Feedback

Negative Feedback

When the levels go above or below a  _______________________,
the endocrine system secretes hormones to lower or raise the level.


Positive Feedback

Pituitary Gland



Why is it called the master gland?

What part of the brain controls it?


Anterior Pituitary Hormones

Prolactin or PRL –
Growth hormone or GH
Adrenocorticotropin or ACTH –
Thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH -.
Luteinizing hormone or LH –

Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH

Posterior Pituitary Hormones


              What is Pitocin?

Antidiuretic hormone or ADH

What is a diuretic?

Thyroid Gland


The thyroid hormones control your _________________________, which is the body's ability to break down food and store it as energy

Thyroid Hormones:

Thyroxin (T4) & Tri-iodothyronine (T3)  - increase the rate at which cells release energy from carbohydrates
Calcitonin – regulates the blood concentration of calcium


Disorders of the thyroid

Hypothyroidism (cretinism)                                                           
Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)

Parathyroid Gland

Located behind the thyroid, four tiny glands that help maintain calcium and phosphorous levels

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) -  takes calcium from the bones to make it available in the blood

Adrenal Glands Located above each kidney.


Adrenal Cortex =  ______________ area            Medulla =  ______________

Adrenal glands produce  _______________________________


Epinephrine & Norepinephrine – increased heart rate, breathing rate, elevated blood pressure  (fight or flight, response to stress)
Aldosterone –helps kidneys conserve sodium and excrete potassium, maintaining ___________________
Cortisol – glucocortoid, keeps blood glucose levels stable; response to ___________
Adrenal Sex Hormones -  androgens (male) and estrogens (female)

Adrenal Gland Disorders

Cushing’s Disease                                                  

Addison’s Disease




Large gland behind stomach, maintains healthy blood sugar (glucose) levels.  
Contains islands of cells called the Islets of Langerhans which secrete glucagon and insulin

Glucagon – stimulates the liver to break down glycogen, Raises ______________________________________

Insulin – decreases blood sugar concentrations, affects the ____________________ of glucose by cells
Diabetes Mellitus –insulin deficiency, blood sugar rises (hyperglycemia) and excess is excreted in the urine

                Type I                                                 

  Type II

Diabetes Insipidus

                Gestational Diabetes

What is a diabetic neuropathy?

Other Endocrine Glands

Pineal Gland –  secretes melatonin which maintains  _____________________________

Thymus Gland – large in young children, gradually shrinks with age, secretes thymosins, important to ______________________

Reproductive Glands – testes and ovaries – testosterone, progesterone, estrogen
What is gonadotropin?

What are steroids?