Cells have 3 main parts:
The cell membrane is SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE = controls what enters and leaves the cell
The cell membrane is a double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins. Sketch the membrane to remember what it looks like.
Case Study: What is wrong with Mackenzie? (summarize)
What is “situs inversus”?
What is cell differentiation?
Cell Membrane: (also called phospholipid bilayer) consists of ____________________ and embedded proteins.
The membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell. It is _________________________.
Why would doctors want to test Mackenzie for cystic fibrosis?
Why is CF considered a disorder of the cell membrane?
CYTOPLASM - the area between the plasma membrane and nucleus, where most metabolic reactions take place.
ORGANELLES ("little organs") are structures within the cell that ________________________
*As we explore each of the structures, consider how a failure in the structure results in disease*
1. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (E.R.) - complex system of canals and channels
A. Rough ER - where ribosomes are located
Ribosomes make ___________________
B. Smooth ER - no ribosomes, where lipid synthesis takes place
2. GOLGI APPARATUS (BODIES) - flattened membranes, the droplets on the edges of the G.A. are vesicles
Proteins are exported in
3. MITOCHONDRIA (-ion = sing.) - the "powerhouse" of the cell, harvests energy
Function = energy from food is converted to ___________
This process is called ________________
Cellular respiration requires glucose (food) and _______________
What are symptoms of mitochondrial disease? Does Mackenzie have these symptoms?
4. LYSOSOMES -. Contain _____________________ ; sometimes called the "suicide sac
What is the purpose of enzymes?
What organ of your body is most like the lysosome?
What causes Tay-Sachs disease? Does Mackenzie have these symptoms?
5. CENTROSOME (centrioles)) -Composed of 2 "cylinders" which lie perpendicular to each other Involved in
During cell division - centrioles form a ___________________________
6. CYTOSKELETON Made of microtubules and microfilaments that give the cell support and shape.
What two structures function in movement? Describe or sketch them
What is Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia?
How does this condition result in “situs inversus?”
Why would PCD make it difficult to get pregnant or have a baby?
7. NUCLEUS - directs the activities of a cell.
Contains genetic information (DNA) in the form of _______________________________
Nucleolus is responsible for the production of ______________________
Pores in the nuclear ___________________ allow RNA to exit nucleus
More analogies : What part of the cell is most like the:
1. Stomach 2. Circulatory System 3. Brain 4. Bones 5. Skin
LABEL THE CELL
What limits the size of cells?
Sketch the phospholipid bilayer.
DIFFUSION - molecules
move from an area of higher concentration
to an area of lower concentration
FACILITATED DIFFUSION - molecules diffuse through a membrane with the help of proteins
OSMOSIS - the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Hypertonic Solution | | Hypotonic Solution | | Isotonic Solution
ACTIVE TRANSPORT - molecules are moved against the concentration gradient. This requires the use of cellular energy, also usually involves a carrier molecule.
Pinocytosis - liquids taken in, cell engulfs a droplet of water
Phagocytosis -solids taken in. a vesicle forms.
Where does the energy come from to power this type of transport?
A. Interphase = growth, chromosomes duplicate, organelles numbers increase
B. Mitosis = nuclear division
C. Cytoplasmic Division = cytokinesis, cell splits into two daughter cells
*Differentiation - cells become specialized, developing characteristics in structure and function