Chapter 3 - Cells

Essential Questions: 

Cytology =

Cells have 3 main parts:

1) __________________________________
2)___________________________________
3) ___________________________________

The cell membrane is SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE = controls what enters and leaves the cell

The cell membrane is a double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins. Sketch the membrane to remember what it looks like.

mackenzie

girl icon Case Study:  What is wrong with Mackenzie?  (summarize)

What is “situs inversus”? 

What is cell differentiation?

Cell Membrane: (also called phospholipid bilayer) consists of ____________________ and embedded proteins.

The membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell.  It is _________________________.

girl iconWhy would doctors want to test Mackenzie for cystic fibrosis?

            Why is CF considered a disorder of the cell membrane?

 

CYTOPLASM - the area between the plasma membrane and nucleus, where most metabolic reactions take place.

ORGANELLES ("little organs") are structures within the cell that ________________________
*As we explore each of the structures, consider how a failure in the structure results in disease*

ORGANELLES

smooth er

1. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (E.R.) - complex system of canals and channels

Function =

A. Rough ER - where ribosomes are located

Ribosomes make ___________________ 

B. Smooth ER - no ribosomes, where lipid synthesis takes place

golgi body

 

2. GOLGI APPARATUS (BODIES) - flattened membranes, the droplets on the edges of the G.A. are vesicles

Function =

Proteins are exported in 

____________________

3. MITOCHONDRIA (-ion = sing.) - the "powerhouse" of the cell, harvests energy

mitochondria

Function = energy from food is converted to  ___________

This process is called  ________________

Cellular respiration requires  glucose (food) and  _______________

girl icon What are symptoms of mitochondrial disease?  Does Mackenzie have these symptoms?

4. LYSOSOMES -. Contain _____________________  ;  sometimes called the "suicide sac

What is the purpose of enzymes?

What organ of your body is most like the lysosome?

girl icon What causes Tay-Sachs disease?   Does Mackenzie have these symptoms? 

5. CENTROSOME (centrioles)) -Composed of 2 "cylinders" which lie perpendicular to each other Involved in

During cell division - centrioles form a ___________________________ 

6. CYTOSKELETON     Made of microtubules and microfilaments that give the cell support and shape.
What two structures function in movement? Describe or sketch them

girl iconWhat is Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia? 

How does this condition result in “situs inversus?”

Why would PCD make it difficult to get pregnant or have a baby?

 

7. NUCLEUS    - directs the activities of a cell. 

Contains genetic information (DNA) in the form of  _______________________________

Nucleolus is responsible for the production of ______________________

Pores in the nuclear ___________________  allow RNA to exit nucleus

More analogies : What part of the cell is most like the:

1. Stomach 2. Circulatory System 3. Brain 4. Bones 5. Skin


LABEL THE CELL

Movement of Substances Through the Cell Membrane

What limits the size of cells?

 

Sketch the phospholipid bilayer.

 

 

 

Passive Transport (no energy required)

DIFFUSION - molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
FACILITATED DIFFUSION - molecules diffuse through a membrane with the help of proteins
OSMOSIS - the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

SOLUTIONS

Hypertonic Solution |                 |  Hypotonic Solution |                  | Isotonic Solution

 

 

 

 

 

ACTIVE TRANSPORT - molecules are moved against the concentration gradient. This requires the use of cellular energy, also usually involves a carrier molecule.

Exocytosis =

Endocytosis =

Pinocytosis - liquids taken in, cell engulfs a droplet of water
Phagocytosis -solids taken in. a vesicle forms.

Where does the energy come from to power this type of transport?

 

The Life Cycle of a Cell

A. Interphase = growth, chromosomes duplicate, organelles numbers increase
B. Mitosis = nuclear division
C. Cytoplasmic Division = cytokinesis, cell splits into two daughter cells

*Differentiation - cells become specialized, developing characteristics in structure and function

MITOSIS

A. PROPHASE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

B. METAPHASE

 

C. ANAPHASE


D. TELOPHASE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

E. CYTOKINESIS

mitosis

 

Differentiation:

Cancer:

Apoptosis:

HeLa Cells: