Introduction

Blood transports substances and maintains homeostasis in the body

Hematophobia =

Blood and Blood Cells

What kind of tissue is blood?

Composed of 2 basic components

1. Cells (rbc, wbc, platelets)
2. Plasma (water, amino acids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, cellular waste)

Hematocrit -

 


Types of Blood Cells

erythrocytes
leukocytes
thrombocytes

 

red blood cellRED BLOOD CELLS (erythrocytes)

What is their shape?

How many are found in a cubic millimeter?

What cell structure is missing from blood cells?

What is hematopoeisis?

How are old blood cells destroyed?

What hormone causes the production of rbc's?

 

Main Functions of Red Blood Cells

- transport O2 throughout body, removes CO2

- Hemoglobin = molecule which combines with O2 to transport it

Oxyhemoglobin - plenty of oxygen, color =

Deoxyhemoglobin - not carrying much O2, color =

*HUMAN BLOOD IS NEVER BLUE*

Elements Critical for RBC Production =

Anemia = too few RBC


WHITE BLOOD CELLS (Leukocytes)

General function - defend the body against disease-causing agents (microorganisms)

Granulocytes (granular cytoplasm) 1. Neutrophils   neutrophil
2. Eosinophils   eosinophil
3. Basophils

 

 

basophil
Agranulocytes (lacking granular cytoplasm) 4. Monocytes   macrophage
5. Lymphocytes   lymphocyte

PLATELETS (thrombocytes)

- help initiate formation of blood clots, close breaks in damaged blood vessels


Blood Plasma

- the liquid portion of the blood, 92% water
- transport nutrients, gases, vitamins, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, and pH

Plasma Proteins

1. Albumins -

2. Globulins -

3. Fibrinogen -

Hemostasis

- the process of stopping bleeding. Involves coagulation and the clotting of blood to seal site of damage, 3 Key Events:

1. Blood vessel spasm =

2. Platelet plug formation =

3. Blood coagulation =

Thrombin causes change of fibrinogen to fibrin, which trap platelets and blood cells to form a hematoma

Thrombus =
Embolus =

Quick Check:

1.  What is the percentage of cells  and plasma in a sample of human blood?  ___________________________________

2.  Platelets release a vasoconstricting substance called:  ____________________________________

3.  The most common white blood cells are the : __________________________________________

4.  The formation of new blood cells is called: ________________________________________________

5.  What chemical produces and inflammatory reaction? _______________________________________________

6.  Type of WBC that is responsible for attacking parasitic infection: _______________________________________


Blood Disorders

(For each, focus on the causes, symptoms and possible treatments)

1. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

2. Anemia

Iron-Deficiency Anemia-

Aplastic Anemia -

Hemorrhagic anemia -

Pernicious anemia -

Sickle Cell Anemia (genetic) -

3. Leukemia

4. Mononucleosis


5. Blood Poisoning - Septicemia


6. Thrombocytopenia

7. Hemophilia


8. Jaundice


9. Hemochromatosis


10. Beta Thalassemia