cholera historical image
Pathology Review Guide

1.  How are Koch’s postulates used to determine a cause of a disease? Consider scenarios where a suspected pathogen is present and how you would provide evidence for it being the causative agent.


2.  What is pathology?    Explain the difference between a pathogen and a disease considering terms like homeostasis and virulence.


3.  Distinguish between:

disease and infectious disease


epidemic and pandemic


virus and bacteria


4.  Explain how each of the following contributed to our understanding of pathology.
        Alexander Fleming  
        Joseph Lister
        Ignatz Semmelweis
        Louis Pasteur
        Robert Koch
        Edward Jenner
        Jonas Salk

5.  What is a bacteriophage? Sketch a phage and identify its major structures showing how it reproduces within a host.



6.  How does the structure of a virus relate to its functions. Sketch and identify these structures and their role in the lysogenic and lytic cycles.



7. How do vaccines work to protect us from viruses? Understand specific components of the immune system that makes vaccination possible.


8.  What is the difference between DNA and RNA (retroviruses) viruses.


9. How does HIV invade a host cell and evade the host immune system? Review the coloring worksheet on HIV.


10. Explain how anti-viral drugs work by disrupting various stages of the viral life cycle.


11. What are the two kingdoms of bacteria and how are they different? How do prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes?


12. How are bacteria identified and classified (shape, gram stain)? You should be able to identify the three main shapes of bacteria: cocci, sphere, bacillus


13. Sketch a bacteria and label its major structures. (pili, flagella, capsule, cell wall, DNA, ribosomes, plamid)


14. Describe how bacteria reproduce (binary fission) and the three ways that new genetic material can be incorporated into the bacterial cell: transduction, transformation, conjugation.


15. Describe the major players (cells) that are involved in the body's immune response.

Helper T Cells | Cytotoxic T Cells | Memory B Cells

Antigen | Antibodies

Humoral vs Cell-Mediated Response

Leukocytes | Macrophages


16. How was the field of epidemiology developed from John Snow's research?

17. Understand the basics of how bacteria are studied and why it is important to follow aseptic technique. You learned this in the lab. You may also be asked about basic equipment and terminology related to this study.


Additional Test Information

Review all of the case studies - pay particular attention to how we have adjusted our understanding of pathogens based on evidence.

AP Biology tests are designed to assess your deep understanding of these topics. Knowing the content from this review guide will give you a good FOUNDATION for answered application questions you will see on the test. The exam will ask some basic questions about your fundamental knowledge, but it will also ask questions that require you to THINK about the topics and draw conclusions. You may see questions about things you have not seen in class. This doesn't mean you can't answer the question, it means that you will need to use what you know and APPLY it to a new situation. Being able to apply knowledge is, after all, the basis of science.

Exam will consist of 20-30 multiple choice questions and 5-10 free response or essay questions.

You will have an hour to complete the test, no additional time will be given -- manage your time well!

Due to time constraints, we will start the test as soon as class starts, this is not the time to ask questions about the review guide. You are welcome to come in before school, email me, or ask on our social network.