# Mendel's Experiments and Probability

1. Gregor Mendel, the "Father of Genetics"

Blending vs. Particulate Inheritance

Pea Plants (traits)

2. Mendel's Experiments

True-breeding / Hybrids

Cross Pollination / Self Pollination

Monohybrid Cross

Dominant / Recessive

Heterozygous / Homozygous

F1 vs F2

Genotype / Phenotype

3. The Test Cross

Cross a recessive to an unknown

The offspring proportion tells you what the unknown was

If unknown was Rr, then half the offspring will be round

If unknown was RR, then all of the offspring will be round

4. The Dihybrid Cross

RrYy x RrYy (show gametes)

The parental genotypes are YyRr (seed color yellow, round) and YyRr (seed color yellow, round).

YR Yr yR yr
YR YYRR YYRr YyRR YyRr
Yr YYRr YYrr YyRr Yyrr
yR YyRR YyRr yyRR yyRr
yr YyRr Yyrr yyRr yyrr

From this Punnett square, you can determine the possible genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring

9:3:3:1 Ratio

5. Mathematical Solutions are faster

Sample Problem: RrPp x rrpp

6. Big Ideas

Law of Independent Assortment

Law of Segregation

Law of Dominance and Recessiveness

Probability

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance