Evolution Review Guide

Video: "Your Inner Fish" - Concepts from the Video

Chapter 18 - Evolution and the Origin of Species

1. Review your notes or the presentation slides

2. Go to the quizalize app and take the practice quizzes.

3. Describe Darwin's journey and observations; biogeography

4. Explain the significance of the Galapagos finches and common descent

5. Describe the process of natural selection in three steps.

6. Review taxonomy and the naming of species (binomial nomenclature)

7. Be able to interpret a cladogram or a phylogenetic tree

8. Define evolution - be specific

9. Relate the terms of fitness, selection strength, and polymorphisms

10. Compare divergent evolution to convergent evolution and provide examples.

11. Provide evidence of evolution (fossils, anatomy, embryology, biogeography, molecular biology)

12. Be prepared to discuss and debunk common myths of evolution.

13. Define speciation and describe how it occurs. (sympatric vs. allopatric; adaptive radiation)

14. Describe the four types of pre-zygotic isolating mechanisms (examples)

15. Describe post-zygotic isolating mechanisms (examples)

16. Provide examples of hybrids; discuss why hybrids provide clues about our evolutionary past and the future of current species.

 

Chapter 19: The Evolution of Populations

1. Explain how allele frequencies can be used to measure evolution.

2. Be able to apply the Hardy Weinberg equation to a populations study. (You do not need to memorize this equation.)

Sample problem: 81 of 1000 sneetches have the recessive trait of long hair. (hh) How many sneetches are heterozygous for short hair? (Hh)

3. List (describe) the five criteria that can result in changes to allele frequency.

mutation

gene flow

sexual reproduction

genetic drift

bottleneck effect

founder effect

natural selection

4. Describe the three types of selection and be able to identify them on a graph. (directional, stabilizing, disuptive)

Chapter 20: Phylogenies and the History of Life

1. Exmaine and analyze a phylogenetic tree

2. Describe the levels of classification (Linnean) and explain how taxonomy relates to evolution. (Also explain how organisms are named using this system.)

3. Describe how the system of cladistics is used to build phylogenetic trees.

Extra: Human Evolution & Head Lice

This case study focused on how head lice and cladistics were used to determine the period of time when humans started to wear clothes. Review this case study, paying attention to vocabulary and concepts related to human evolution.

 

Case Studies and Activities:

White-Striped Clover

Lactose-Lactase Study (from the enzyme unit) but comes up again in this unit

Stickleback Evolution

The Tale of Three Lice

Pocket Mice and Hardy Weinberg