AP Biology Unit 2: Cell Biology

Essential Questions: Chapter 4 & 5

1. How was the cell theory established?

2. How do prokaryote cells differ from eukaryotes cells?

3. How do cells build and export materials?

4. How does a cell move and maintain its shape?

5. How does the membrane help the cell maintain homeostasis?

6. How do materials move in and out of the cell?

7. What is the difference between active and passive transport?

8. How can problems with cell structures lead to disease states in an organism?

9. How do cells communicate?

Essential Questions: Metabolism

10. How do the Laws of Thermodynamics relate to living systems?

11. What is metabolism?

12. What is the relationship between enzymes and reactions in the cell?

13. What factors affect the rates of reactions?

Chapter 4: Cell Structure and Function

checkbox Describe the scientists/observations that resulted in the cell theory.
checkbox Describe/label a prokaryote cell
checkbox Describe / label a eukaryote cell
checkbox Explain why cells are limited in size
checkbox Describe the structure of the nucleus
checkbox Describe how cell structures are directly related to function.
checkbox Describe diseases that are related to defective organelles.
checkbox Explain how the endomembrane system works to export materials from the cell
checkbox Describe evidence that supports the Endosymbiosis Theory
checkbox Compare a plant cell to an animal cell, listing specific structures that are found in each
checkbox Describe the steps involved in protein synthesis and export.

Chapter 5: Cell Membrane Structure

checkbox Describe the phospholipid bilayer, including the various proteins and carbohydrates that are embedded within it

checkbox Describe how the membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell (selectively permeable)
checkbox Explain how diffusion moves some materials across the membrane, explain what is meant by a concentration gradient
checkbox Describe the types of passive transport
checkbox Explain osmosis, with regard to tonicity
checkbox Describe what happens to a plant cell placed in salt water
checkbox Explain how cells can regulate the amount of water within the cell
checkbox List the different types of active transport
checkbox Explain how the sodium potassium pump works
checkbox Describe the types of bulk transport (endocytosis, exocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis)
checkbox Be able to label diagrams showing the various types of transport
checkbox Discuss the role of membrane proteins and receptors in causing diseases like Cystic Fibrosis (see Case Study)

enzyme

checkbox Explain how water potential and molarity affects the movement of water into the cell (see Lab on Diffusion)

Chapter 6: Metabolism

checkbox Compare anabolic to catolic reactions
checkbox Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy
checkbox State the first and second laws of thermodynamics
checkbox Explain/Sketch the induced fit (lock & key) model of enzymes
checkbox Describe the structure of ATP and ADP
checkbox List factors that affect enzymatic speed
checkbox Recognize names of enzymes and substrates (Ex. sucrose & sucrase)

checkbox Compare competitive to noncompetitive inhibition to feedback inhibition
checkbox Review the lab on hydrogen peroxide and enzymes, be able to write the reaction and explain how different factors affect the rate of reaction.

Chapter 7: Cell Respiration

checkbox Be able to write the equations for both cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
checkbox Describe the mitochondrion, be able to label specific structures within the mitochondrion.
checkbox With regard to respiration, summarize the events of glycolyss, the Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain. Identify how much ATP is produced in each. Know where each of these processes take place.
checkbox Describe the membrane system that generates ATP, define the role of ATP synthase and concentration gradients in the process.

Essential Questions: Respiration & Photosynthesis

14. How do the processes of photosynthesis and respiration form a cycle?

15. How does photosynthesis create food that is used for energy in cellular respiration?

16. How is ATP generated by cells?

17. Why is oxygen necessary and what happens when oxygen is not available to cells?

Describe anaerobic respiration, identify products of this reaction
checkbox Discuss how fermentation is used in food production.

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

checkbox Describe / Label the structure of a leaf.
checkbox Describe / Label a chloroplast and be able to identify where the major events of photosynthesis take place
checkbox Compare the action spectrum to the absorption spectrum

checkbox Discuss factors that influence the rate of photosynthesis
checkbox List the events that occur in the light reaction
checkbox List the events that occur during the light-independent reaction (Calvin Cycle)
checkbox Compare the events of photosystem I and photosystem II
checkbox Describe / label / sketch the events of the light reaction (see coloring)
checkbox Review lab on photosynthesis, understand how the design of the experiment allowed the rate of photosynthesis to be measured and what factors affected that rate.

Essential Questions: Cell Division

18. What are the steps involved in mitosis and cytokinesis?

19. How do cells tranfer genetic information (without error) to new cells?

20. What happens when errors do occur in this process?

Chapter 9: Cell Communication

checkbox Describe the four types of signalling pathways
checkbox Discuss the role of receptors in cell communication
checkbox Describe/Sketch/Label a neurotransmitter (synaptic signals)

Chapter 10: Cell Reproduction

checkbox Be able to draw / label a diagram of mitosis
checkbox Compare cytokinesis of plant cells to animal cells
checkbox Illustrate how mitosis results in identical daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
checkbox Identify specific structures within the cell that are involved in cell division.
checkbox Discuss the importance of HeLa cells in biological research as well as ethical considerations regarding their use.
checkbox Explain why cancer is largely a disease of the cell cycle. Discuss reasons that it will be difficult to cure cancer.