AP Biology Unit 2: Cell Biology

Essential Questions: Chapter 4 & 5

1. How was the cell theory established?

2. How do prokaryote cells differ from eukaryotes cells?

3. How do cells build and export materials?

4. How does a cell move and maintain its shape?

5. How does the membrane help the cell maintain homeostasis?

6. How do materials move in and out of the cell?

7. What is the difference between active and passive transport?

8. How can problems with cell structures lead to disease states in an organism?

9. How do cells communicate?

Chapter 4: Cell Structure and Function

checkbox Describe the scientists/observations that resulted in the cell theory.
checkbox Describe/label a prokaryote cell
checkbox Describe / label a eukaryote cell
checkbox Explain why cells are limited in size
checkbox Describe the structure of the nucleus
checkbox Describe how cell structures are directly related to function.
checkbox Describe diseases that are related to defective organelles.
checkbox Explain how the endomembrane system works to export materials from the cell
checkbox Describe evidence that supports the Endosymbiosis Theory
checkbox Compare a plant cell to an animal cell, listing specific structures that are found in each
checkbox Describe the steps involved in protein synthesis and export.

Chapter 5: Cell Membrane Structure

checkbox Describe the phospholipid bilayer, including the various proteins and carbohydrates that are embedded within it

checkbox Describe how the membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell (selectively permeable)
checkbox Explain how diffusion moves some materials across the membrane, explain what is meant by a concentration gradient
checkbox Describe the types of passive transport
checkbox Explain osmosis, with regard to tonicity
checkbox Describe what happens to a plant cell placed in salt water
checkbox Explain how cells can regulate the amount of water within the cell
checkbox List the different types of active transport
checkbox Explain how the sodium potassium pump works
checkbox Describe the types of bulk transport (endocytosis, exocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis)
checkbox Be able to label diagrams showing the various types of transport
checkbox Discuss the role of membrane proteins and receptors in causing diseases like Cystic Fibrosis (see Case Study)

checkbox Explain how water potential and molarity affects the movement of water into the cell (see Lab on Diffusion)