In this lab, you will observe the process of osmosis and diffusion. You will also
learn how to calculate water potential. If you are not familiar with these concepts,
make sure that you have looked them up in your textbook. If you don't know what
these terms mean, this lab is not going to make sense to you.
1. Obtain 6 strips of dialysis tubing and tie an knot in one end of each.
2. Pour approxiamately 25 mL of each of the following solutions into separate bags.
|Distilled Water||0.4 M sucrose||0.8 M sucrose|
|0.2 M sucrose||0.6 M sucrose||1.0 M sucrose|
3. Remove most of the air from the bag (but leave a little bit of space) and tie the baggie.
4. Rinse the baggie carefully in distilled water to remove any sucrose that may have spilled and carefully blot.
5. Record the mass of each baggie.
6. Fill six 250 mL beakers two-thirds full with distilled water and place a bag in each of them. Make sure that you record which baggie is which.
7. Let the bag sit for 20-30 minutes. (While this is running, you may want to begin exercise 3.)
8. After 20-30 minutes, remove the baggies from the water, and carefully blot dry.
Predict what you think will happen during the experiment. (Think about which bags will lose water and which will gain water.)
9. Measure the mass of each baggie and record.
10. To calculate: percent change in mass= (final mass-initial mass)/ initial mass. Then multiply answer by 100.
11. Gather the data from the other groups in the class and find the class average for each baggie.
|Contents in Bag||Initial Mass||Final Mass||Mass Difference||% Change in Mass||Average|
12. Graph the results for both your individiual data and class average on on graph. The independent variable is on the X axis, and the dependent variable is on the Y axis
1. Explain the relationship between the change in mass and the molarity of sucrose within the dialysis bag.
2. Predict what would happen to the mass of each bag in this experiment if all the bags were placed in 0.4 M sucrose solution instead of distilled water. Explain your response.
3. Why did you calculate the percent change in mass rather than simply using the change in mass?
4. A dialysis bag is filled with distilled water and then placed in a sucrose solution. The bag's initial mass is 20 g, and its final mass is 18 g. Calculate the percent change of mass, showing your calculations.
In animal cells, the movement of water into and out of the cell is influenced by the relative concentration of solute on either side of the cell membrane. If water moves out of the cell, the cell will shrink. If water moves into the cell, the cell may swell or even burts. In plant cells, the precense of a cell wall prevents the cells from bursting, but pressure does eventually build up inside the cell and affects the process of osmosis. Whenthe pressure inside the cell becomes large enough, no additional water will accumulate in the cell even though cell still has a higher solute concentration than does pure water. So movement of water through the plant tissue cannot be predicted simply through knowing the relative solute concentrations on either side of the plant cell wall. Instead, the concept of water potential is used to predice the direction in which water will diffuse through living plant tissues.
In a general sense, the water potential is the tendency of water to diffuse from one are to another under a given set of perimeters. Water potenial is expressin in bars, a metric unit of pressure equal to about 1 atmosphere and measured with a barometer. Water potential is abbreviated by the Greek letter psi and has to major components: solute potential , which is dependent on solute concentration and pressure potential , which results from the exertion of pressure - either positive or negative - on a solution. We express this as:
In Figure 1.1. A potato cell is placed in pure water. Initally the water potential outside the cell is 0 and is higher than the water potential inside the cell (-3). Under these conditions there will be a net movement of water into the cell. The pressure potential inside the cell will increase until the cell reaches a state of equilibrium.
1. Pour 100 mL of your assigned solution (it will be one of the six solutions listed above in Exercise 2) into a beaker. Slice a potato into 4 equal cylinders.
2. Determine the mass of the 4 potato cylinders together and record.
3. Place the cylinders into the beaker with your assigned solution and cover with plastic wrap. Leave overnight
4. Remove the cylinders from the beakers and carefully blot of any excess solution. Record the room temperature in Celsius.
5. Determine the mass of the 4 potato cylinder together and record.
6. Calculate the % change.
|Contents in Bag||Initial Mass||Final Mass||Mass Difference||%Change in Mass||Average|
7. Graph the results for both your individiual data and class average on on graph. In order to do so, the 0 axis line should actually be in the middle of your graph. The y axis above this line should be labeled % increase in mass while the y axis below this line should be labeled % decrease. The x axis is the sucrose molarity within the beaker.
8. Determine the molar concentration of the potato cores. This would be the sucrose molarity in which the mass of the potato core does not change. To find this, draw the straight line on your graph that best fits your data. The point at which this line crosses the x axis represents the molar concentration of sucrose with a water potential that is equal to the potato tissue water potential. At this concentration, there is no net gain or loss of water from the tissue.
What is the Molar concentration of the cores? ___________
9. Calculate the solute potential for the sucose solution: ____________________________________
10. Explain water potential and describe how it affects osmosis
11. Design an Experiment to Illustrate Osmosis or Diffusion
Using your knowledge of membranes, cell transport and water potential, suggest an experiment you could perform that would illustrate these principles. Be detailed in your description, though you are not required to actually perform this experiment.