1. Made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones(chemical messengers)
2. Regulation of growth, metabolism, sexual development
3. Responses to stress and injury
4. Internal balance of body systems (homeostasis)
6. Pineal Body
Endocrine glands =
Exocrine glands =
Steroids – insoluble in water, carried in the blood and released near the vicinity of the target cell
Nonsteroid hormones - epinephrine, growth hormone
Prostoglandins – act locally, affecting only the organ where they are produced
Negative Feedback System
Positive Feedback system
Why is it called the master gland?
What part of the brain controls it?
Each side of the pituitary is responsible for different hormones:
Prolactin or PRL -
Growth hormone or GH -
Adrenocorticotropin or ACTH -
Thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH -
Luteinizing hormone or LH -
Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH -
What is pitocin?
Antidiuretic hormone or ADH -
*Diuretics – increase urine production
The thyroid is a small gland inside the neck, located in front of the (trachea)
The thyroid hormones control your metabolism, which is the body's ability to break down food and store it as energy and the ability to break down food into waste products with a release of energy in the process.
Thyroxin (T4) & Tri-iodothyronine (T3) - both increase the rate at which cells release energy from carbohydrates
Calcitonin – regulates the blood concentration of calcium
Hypothyroidism (cretinism in infants) -
Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) -
Located behind the thyroid, four tiny glands that help maintain calcium and phosphorous levels
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) - takes calcium from the bones to make it available in the blood
Hyperparathyroidism – can be caused by a tumor, increases PTH secretion; bones soften and too much calcium can cause kidney stones
Hypoparathyroidism – too little PTH, too little calcium affects nervous system
Each adrenal gland is actually two endocrine organs located right above each kidney. The outer portion is called the adrenal cortex. The inner portion is called the adrenal medulla.
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine –
Aldosterone – a mineralcorticoid, helps kidneys conserve sodium and excrete potassium, maintaining blood pressure
Cortisol – keeps blood glucose levels stable, stress hormone
Adrenal Sex Hormones - androgens (male) and estrogens (female)
Cushing’s Syndrome(hypersecretion of cortisol) – blood glucose remains high, retains too much sodium, puffy skin, masculinizing effects in women
Addison’s Disease (hyposecretion) – decreased blood sodium, dehydration, low blood pressure, increased skin pigmentation
The pancreas is a large gland behind your stomach that helps the body to maintain healthy blood sugar (glucose) levels.
Contains islands of cells called the Islets of Langerhans which secrete glucagon and insulin
Glucagon – stimulates the liver to break down glycogen, raises blood sugar concentration
Insulin – decreases blood sugar concentrations, affects the uptake of glucose by cells
Diabetes Mellitus – results from insulin deficiency, blood sugar rises (hypoglycemia); excess excreted in urine.
Type I – insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile onset diabetes, often caused by inherited immune disorder that destroys pancreatic cells
Type II – mature onset diabetes (usually after the age of 40), often individuals are overweight, can be controlled with diet and exercise
Hypoglycemia – low blood sugar, can be caused by too much insulin
What are symptoms or signs of diabetes?
What is a diabetic neuropathy?
What is gestational diabetes?
Pineal Gland – melatonin, sleep cycles
Thymus Gland – large in young children, gradually shrinks with age, secretes thymosins, important to immune function
Reproductive Glands – testes and ovaries – testosterone, progesterone, estrogen
What is a gonadotropin?